标题: 接近上师----宗萨钦哲仁波切 [打印本页]

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:36
标题: 接近上师----宗萨钦哲仁波切
Approaching the Guru

To tell you the truth, I think I am the wrong person to talk about guru devotion, because I don’t have it. This is not because there is any deficiency in my teachers; it is entirely because of something lacking in me. Believe me, I have so much ego, and devotion is bad news for the ego. On the other hand, I have studied devotion, so I may have some theoretical knowledge about it.
说实话,我想我不是一个适合谈有关对上师虔诚心的人,因为我没有虔诚心。这 不是因为我的老师们有任何缺陷,完全因为我缺乏了一些东西。相信我,我的自 我这么强,而虔诚心对自我而言是个坏消息;但另一方面,我研究过虔诚心,所 以可能对它有一些理论上的知识。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:38
Why devotion?  为何需要虔诚心?

Why do we need devotion? Generally speaking, we need devotion because we need enlightenment.  In  one  way,  enlightenment  can  be  understood  very  simply  as  a release  from  certain  obsessions  and  hang-ups.  Until  we  are  free  from  these obsessions and habits, we will wander endlessly in samsara, going through all sorts of anxiety, suffering, and so on.
为何需要虔诚心呢?因为我们要成佛。某方面来说,成佛可以很简单的理解为从 某些纠缠和执著中解脱出来。一直到我们脱离了这些纠缠和习气之前,我们将无 止尽的徘徊在轮回中,经历各种的焦虑和痛苦等等。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:38
The cause of all these sufferings is our fundamental insecurity. We are always wondering whether we exist or not. Our ego, or rather our attachment to the idea of self, is completely insecure about its own existence. Our ego may seem strong but it is actually quite shaky. Of course, we do not ask such questions consciously, but we always have a subconscious feeling of insecurity about whether we exist.
这些痛苦的原因是我们基本的不安全感,我们总是怀疑自己存在与否。自我或对自我的执著,对於它本身的存在完全没有安全感。自我可能显得很坚强,但实际上却很不稳固。当然我们不会有意识地问这种问题,但潜意识里我们总是对自己 的存在感到不安全。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:41
We try to use things such as friends, money, position and power, and all the everyday things that we do, like watching television or going shopping, to somehow prove and confirm our existence. Try sitting alone in a house and doing absolutely nothing. Sooner or later your hands will reach for the remote control or the newspaper. We need to be occupied. We need to be busy. If we are not busy, we feel insecure.
我们试著用一些事物,像是朋友、金钱、地位及权利,以及我们每天所做的事件, 例如看电视或购物,来证明及确定自己的存在。试著自己一人坐在屋里,什么事 都绝对不做,早晚你的手就会开始找遥控器或报纸。我们需要被占据,我们需要 忙碌,如果不忙碌就觉得不安全。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:42
But there is something very strange in all this. The ego searches constantly for distraction, and then the distraction itself becomes a problem. Instead of helping us to feel reassured,  it  actually  increases our insecurity.  We  get obsessed  with the distraction and it develops into another habit. Once it becomes a habit, it is difficult to get rid of. So in order to get rid of this new habit, we have to adopt yet another habit. This is how things go on and on.
奇怪的是,自我不断的寻找打扰,然而打扰本身又成了一个问题,它不但没有帮 我们安心,反而增加不安全感。我们执著这些打扰,且发展成另一种习性,一旦 它成为一种习性,就很难去除,为了去除这个新习性,我们就必须发展出另一个 习性。这就是事情演变的方式。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:43
In order to undermine this kind of habitual pattern, Lord Buddha taught us many, many   different   methods.  Some  of  these   are   very  skillful  methods,   such  as overcoming the emotions by making friends with them. Even a single word of the Sakyamuni Buddha can liberate us from all these obsessions and habitual patterns. Take,  for  instance,  the  teaching  on  impermanence.  When  many  of  us,  including myself, hear teachings on things like impermanence, the precious human body, and love and compassion, we tend to dismiss them as very simple and preliminary. But this is because we do not actually understand them.
为了破坏这种习性,佛陀教导我们许多不同的方法,其中有些是非常技巧的方便 法门,像是利用和情绪作朋友来克服它。释迦摩尼佛说的一个字,就可以使我们 从这些束缚和习性中解脱出来。例如无常的教授,我们很多人,包括我自己在内, 听到有关无常、人身难得以及慈悲,就企图忽视这些被认为非常简单而且初步的 教授,但这是因为我们没有真正的了解它。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:44
Training the Mind 修心

The quintessence of the path is to have the wisdom that realizes egolessness. Until we have this wisdom, we have not understood the essence of the Buddha’s teaching.
修道的精髓是证得无我的智慧。证悟这样的智慧之前,我们都不了解佛陀教授的 精义。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:45
In order to achieve this wisdom, first we have to make our mind malleable, workable—in the sense of being in control of our own mind. As Shantideva said, if you want to walk comfortably, there are two possible solutions. Either you can try to cover the whole ground with leather—but that would be very difficult—or you can achieve the same effect by simply wearing a pair of shoes. In the same way, it would be difficult to train and tame every single emotion that we have, or to change the world according to our desires. In fact the basis of all experience is the mind, and that’s why Buddhists stress the importance of training the mind in order to make it workable and flexible.
为了证得这种智慧,首先要使自己的心有弹性、可以被塑造 — 也就是可以控制 自己的心。如寂天菩萨所说,如果你想要很舒服的走路,有两种可能的解决办法, 一者将整个大地覆盖上皮革 — 但这非常困难;或者只要穿上一双皮鞋,即可达 到相同的效果。同样的,要训练及降服每一种烦恼,或者依照自己的愿望来改变 世界是困难的。事实上,心是一切经验的基础,这也就是为何佛教强调修心,要 使心能够被塑造并具有弹性。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:46
Yet a flexible mind is not enough. We have to understand the nature of the mind.

This is very difficult  to do, precisely because it involves the wisdom of realizing egolessness.  We  have  been  in  samsara  from  beginningless  time.  Our  habitual patterns are very strong. We are completely deluded. For this reason, it is very, very difficult for this wisdom to appear.
只是心具有弹性仍然不够,还必须了解心的本性,这非常困难,因为这要了解无 我的智慧。无始以来我们即在轮回里,我们的习性很强,完全被迷惑住了,因此 这种智慧很难展现。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:47
So  what  is  to  be  done?  There  is  only  one  way  to  obtain  this  wisdom—by accumulating merit. How should we accumulate this merit? According to the general vehicle of Buddhism, the method of accumulating merit is by having renunciation mind, by contemplating impermanence, by refraining from all the causes and conditions that will strengthen the ego, by engaging in all the causes and conditions that will strengthen our wisdom, by refraining from harming other beings, and so on. In the mahayana school, the merit is accumulated by having compassion for sentient beings.
那怎么办呢?只有一个方法可以得到这种智慧 — 累积功德。如何累积功德呢? 根据一般佛教的看法,累积功德的方法是要具备出离心,思量无常,克制加强自 我的因和缘,致力增加智慧的因和缘,避免伤害其他众生等等。大乘是藉由对众 生的慈悲来累积功德。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:49
To cut a long story short, if you want enlightenment you need wisdom. If you want wisdom, you must have merit. And to have merit, according to mahayana, you must have  compassion  and  bodhichitta,  the  wish  to  establish  beings  in  the  state  of freedom.
简短而言,成佛需要智慧;智慧需要有功德。如何有功德呢?根据大乘,必须有 慈悲心及菩提心,希望一切众生得到解脱和自由。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:50
Blessings of the Guru 上师的加持

The vajrayana is renowned for its many methods and techniques, some of which are

quite easy. The most important one, however, is to have a “sacred outlook.” And guru devotion is the essence of this sacred outlook. It says in the commentary to the Chakrasamvara Tantra that, “Through the blessings and kindness of the guru, great bliss, the realization of emptiness, the union of samsara and nirvana, can be obtained instantly.” This quotation talks about buddhanature.
金刚乘以具有许多善巧和方便闻名,其中有些很简单,最重要的一项是「净观」, 对上师的虔诚心是净观的精髓。胜乐金刚续的注释中说:「透过上师的加持和慈 悲,可以在一刹那得到大乐、证悟空性以及轮涅合一。」这段话就是谈佛性。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:51
Generally speaking, the ultimate message of Buddhism is that you possess buddhanature. In other words, you already and quite naturally have within you the qualities of complete enlightenment. But you need to realize this. The fact that you don’t  have  this  realization  is  the  reason  why  you  are  wandering  in  samsara. According to Nagarjuna, the Buddha didn’t say that you need to abandon samsara in order to gain enlightenment. What he said was that you need to see that samsara is empty, that it has no inherent existence. This is the same as saying that you need to recognize your essential buddhanature.
佛教最究竟的教授说,你具有佛性;换句话说,你已经具备完整佛陀的品质,但 你需要认知这件事,因为无法认知,所以你才在轮回中飘荡。根据龙树的讲法, 佛没有说需要舍弃轮回才能成佛,佛是说你需要见到轮回即是空性,轮回没有真 实存在的本质,这和说你需要认知到自己基本的佛性是一样的。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:52
There are many different methods for recognizing this Buddha within. Of these, the quickest and easiest is to receive the blessings of the guru. This is why guru devotion is necessary.
有许多不同的方法来认知内在的佛,其中最快、最容易的是接受上师的加持,这 是为什么需要对上师有虔诚心。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:53
For example, you may be having a nightmare about monsters. But then suddenly, somebody throws a bucket of cold water over you and you wake up. The cold water doesn’t really make the monsters disappear, because there were no monsters in the first place. It was just a dream. But on the other hand, when you are having a nightmare, your sufferings are real, and the person who throws the bucket of water over you is indeed very kind and special. If you have a lot of merit you are able to meet such a person, a person who can throw the water. On the other hand, if you don’t have merit, you may never wake up from the nightmare.
例如,你可能正在作恶梦,梦中有个恶魔,突然间,有人对你泼了一桶冷水,你 醒来了,冷水并不真的使恶魔消失,因为从一开始就没有恶魔,这只是一个梦。 但另一方面,作恶梦时,你的痛苦是真实的,这个对你泼冷水的人是真的非常仁 慈和特别。如果你有很多功德,你就可以遇到这样的人,对你泼冷水;反之,如 果你没有功德,你可能永远无法从恶梦中醒来。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:55
The guru lineage originates with someone called Vajradhara or Samantabhadra. Our masters tell us that he is our own mind, the nature of our own mind. This means that when we trace back through the lineage, we actually end up with our own minds, the essence of ourselves. The guru is not some kind of almighty sponsor that we have to worship or obey. The most important thing to understand is that the guru is the display of our buddhanature.
上师的传承开始於金刚持或普贤王如来,老师告诉我们,金刚持或普贤王如来就 是我们心的本性。也就是说当我们往上追溯这个传承,最後找到的是我们的心, 也就是自己的本性。上师并不是一个全能的教父,需要崇拜及服从,最重要的是 要了解上师是自己佛性的显现。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:56
On the ordinary level, one can say that the guru is someone who tells you what to do and what not to do. A small child may not realize that hot iron burns, so his father tells him that it burns and saves him from getting hurt. The guru is doing this for you when he tells you what is right and what is wrong.
在普通的情况,我们可以说上师告诉你什么可以做,什么不可以做。小孩可能不 知道热铁会灼伤人,所以他的父亲会告诉他,并保护他不被灼伤。上师告诉你什 么是对、什么是错的时候,也是为了保护你。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:57
In Vajrayana, though, the guru does something even more important. You must have read many, many times that your body, speech, mind and aggregates have all been pure from beginningless time. But we don’t realize that. As Kyabje Dudjom Rinpoche said, it is precisely because the truth is so simple that people don’t understand it. It’s like our eyelashes, which are so close that we can’t see them. The reason why we don’t realize this is our lack of merit. The guru’s role is to grant us empowerment and introduce us to this purity—and finally to point out directly the mind’s nature.
在金刚乘,上师所做的更重要。你一定已经听过很多次了,你的身、语、意和五 蕴,从无始以来就是清净的,但我们不能证得。如敦珠仁波切所说:「正因为真 理这么简单,所以人们无法了解;像是我们的睫毛,它这么靠近,以致於无法看 见它。」不能认知的原因是缺乏功德,上师的角色是给予我们灌顶,并介绍这种 清净 — 最後,直接指出心的本性。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 18:59
Putting the Guru to the Test 检视上师

The great vidyadhara Jigme Lingpa said that it is very important to analyze the guru first. As I said before, we are naturally very insecure people. Because of this we are easy prey. We make all sorts of mistakes that are difficult to clear up later on.
伟大的持明吉美林巴曾说:「刚开始时,先分析上师是很重要的。」如我之前所言, 我们与生俱来就是非常没有安全感的人,因此很容易成为猎物。我们制造了各式 各样的错误,以致於最後难以解决。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 19:01
Before you start to follow a guru, you should have a good understanding of the dharma. I don’t mean that you have to understand it completely, but at least you should have some understanding. You should analyze, and you should be skeptical and critical. Perhaps you should argue, and try to find fault by using logic and reflection.
开始跟随一位上师之前,应该对佛法先有很好的了解。我并不是说你要完全了解, 但至少要有一些认识。你应该分析、怀疑、批判、争辩,并试著利用逻辑和思考 的方法找寻错误。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 19:01
But while you are doing this, you should not have the journalist’s approach of looking for faults. The aim here is to find the path, not to find faults. So, when you study Buddhism, you should try to see whether this path suits you or not, whether this path makes sense or not. This is very important.
但当你在做这些的时候,不应该像新闻记者寻找错误一样,这里的目的是找寻道 路,不是找寻错误。所以在研读佛教时,应该想想这条道路是否适合你?是否有 意义?这非常重要。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 19:02
Here’s an example. Let’s say that we want to go to New York, and we are hiring a guide. We need to have at least some idea where New York is. To take a guide without knowing whether New York is in the east, south or west is what I call the “inspirational disease.” It’s not enough just to find the guide attractive—to like the way he looks, talks and behaves. You should have at least some knowledge where New York is, so that if in the middle of the trip he begins to act a little funny, you feel okay because you know that you are heading in the right direction. He may lead you through strange or rough roads, but that doesn’t matter if you know you are heading in the right direction.
举个例子,假设我们要去纽约,雇了一个导游,我们至少对纽约在哪里应该有点 概念。去找个导游,但自己却完全不知道纽约在东方、南方或西方,这是我所谓 的「灵感的疾病」。只是找一个外貌、谈吐以及行为具有吸引力的导游是不够的。 你应该对纽约在哪里至少有一些知识,如果在旅行的途中,导游有些怪异的举动, 你会觉得还好,因为你知道自己是往正确的方向前进,他可能引导你走陌生或崎 岖的道路,但只要你知道自己往正确的方向前进,就没有问题。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 19:03
On the other hand, if you don’t know the way at all, you are obliged to place all your trust in this one guide who claims that he can do anything. Maybe if you have lots of merit, you might accidentally find an authentic guide and actually reach New York. But if I were you I would not trust this kind of accidental success all the way. It is good to analyze the path first, and then you can have one or a hundred or thousands of gurus if you like.
另一方面,如果你完全不知道路径,你就不得不完全信任一个声称他了解一切的 导游。如果你有很多功德,你可能意外的找到一个可以信任的导游,真的到达纽约,但如果我是你,我不会完全信任这种意外的成功。先分析这条道路,然後如果喜欢的话,你可以有一个、百个或千个上师。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 19:04
Approaching the Guru 接近上师

What should we do next? One of the great Sakyapa masters, Jamyang Gyaltsen, said, “First you have to think about, contemplate, and manufacture devotion.” You need fabricated devotion, which is to consider that the guru is the Buddha. Make believe, so to speak. After a while, at the second stage, you will really start to see him as the Buddha, without any difficulty. And finally, at the third stage, you will realize that you are the Buddha. This is the unique approach of the vajrayana.
接下来要怎么做呢?一位伟大的萨迦派大师蒋扬嘉程说:「首先必须思考、深思 熟虑,制造出虔诚心。」需要造作出虔诚心,也就是视上师为佛,使自己相信这 件事。过一阵子,到了第二阶段,你会没有困难的看上师是佛。最後,在第三阶 段,你会证悟到自己就是佛。这是金刚乘特别的方法。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 19:05
As I said at the beginning, I personally don’t have real devotion. I don’t see my guru as the Buddha, but I try to contemplate and think that he is the Buddha. This is what we call created or fabricated devotion. In the beginning we consider that all the faults we see in him are nothing but our own projections. But the truth of the matter is that the guru has all the qualities of the Buddha. He is the Buddha, he is the dharma, he is the sangha; he is everything.
如我刚开始所说,我没有真正的虔诚心,没有视上师为佛,但我试著这样去思考、 去想他是佛,这就是造作或捏造的虔诚心。开始时,认为所有我们看到上师的错 误,都只是自己的投射,真实的情况是上师具有所有佛的品质,上师是佛、法、 僧,他是一切。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 19:06
We think like this again and again. This may strike you as nonsense, but actually it’s very logical—after all, everything depends on the mind. It is because of our delusions that it is initially very hard for us to see the guru as the Buddha. We have to practice and get used to it again and again, and then it will definitely work.

这样一遍又一遍的思维,也许你会觉得无意义,但实际上这非常逻辑的 — 毕竟一切唯心。因为自己的染污,所以一开始很难视上师是佛,我们必须一再的练习 来习惯它,然後一定可以如此运作。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 19:07
Shantideva has said that if you get accustomed to something, there is nothing in this world that is difficult. Let’s say this is the first time in your life that you are going to a bar. You are introduced to someone and, due to some past karmic connection; this person proceeds to give you all the initiations and oral instructions and teachings on how to mix various drinks, Tequila with lemon, martinis dry and sweet — all sorts of details about drinking.
寂天菩萨曾说:「如果习惯了某事,这世界就没有什么困难的。」假设你生命中第 一次走进酒吧,介绍认识了某人,因为以往业力的牵引,此人持续的给你有关混 合不同的饮料的灌顶、口诀和教授,龙舌兰酒加柠檬,不甜和甜的马丁尼 — 饮 料的各种细节。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 19:08
Being a very devoted and diligent student, you practice drinking. In the beginning, it burns your throat, it hurts your stomach, and you get drunk. You vomit and you get up the next morning with a headache. With lots of enthusiasm you keep doing this. This is what we call foundation practice. You keep going to this person, and even though he occasionally gives you a hard time, it  doesn’t matter. You are a very diligent student. Then one day your mind and his mingle: you know everything about alcohol, you know how to drink. At this point, you are a perfect lineage holder of alcohol drinking. You can then begin to teach others.
你是个非常虔诚和精进的学生,你练习喝酒。刚开始,酒会烧伤喉咙、伤害胃、 也会醉,令你呕吐,隔天早上醒来时还头疼。但你以很大的热诚持续这样做,这 就是所谓的加行。你不断的去找这个人,即使有时候他让你觉得难受,也不在乎, 你是个非常精进的学生。直到有一天你的心和他的心合而为一:你知道所有有关 酒的事,你知道如何饮酒。在这件事上,你是一个完美的饮酒传承持有人,你可 以开始教导别人了。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 19:09
The Universality of the Guru 上师的全面性

We think that the guru is only good for giving teachings, that the guru is only good for special things but not good for headaches or other problems. This is not the way to think. For every problem that you have, pray to the guru, receive his blessings and you will be free from it. In one Tantra, it says, “Years and years of doing meditation on the development or completion stages, or years and years of chanting mantras, cannot compare with one instant of remembering the guru.”
我们认为上师只能给予教授,只对某些特定的事情是好的,但对头疼或其它问题 则未必如此,这种想法不对。任何问题,都可向上师祈祷,接受他的加持,使自 己由其中获得自由。在一部密续中谈到:「多年修持生起次第以及圆满次第,或 者多年持咒,皆比不上刹那忆念上师。」

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 19:10
How should you behave with a guru? As an offering you can think of things like dress code, etiquette, politeness, but it doesn’t really matter. However, there are two very important things that you should never forget. The first is that you should never have pride. This is because you are there to learn, to receive teachings, to find enlightenment. As Tibetans say, “A proud person is like a stone.” No matter how much water you put on it, it will never get soaked. If you have pride you will never learn. So it’s very important to adopt an attitude of humility.
跟随上师,你的行为应该如何呢?你可以将规范穿著、有规矩、有礼貌等等当成 供养,但这并不真的重要。有两件事非常重要,应该永远不忘记,第一是不应该 骄傲,因为你是来学习,来接受教授,来寻找菩提的。西藏谚语说:「骄傲的人 就像石头一样。」不论你对它倒多少水,它永远不会湿透。骄傲就无法学习,所 以调整到谦虚的态度是非常重要的。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 19:12
The second important thing is never to waste an opportunity to accumulate merit. Having merit is so important. When you watch a movie, if you don’t know that it’s a movie and think it’s real, you will go through all sorts of emotional trauma. But if the person next to you says, “This is just a movie,” from then on you will be free from this kind of delusion. On the other hand, if you don’t have merit, then just at the moment when the person next to you says, “Look, this is just a movie,” someone behind you might cough very loudly, and you may not hear what the person next to you says. So you miss the opportunity of realization—all because you don’t have merit.
第二是永远不要错失累积功德的机会,具有功德非常重要。看电影时,如果你不 知道那是一场电影,而以为是真实的,那你就会感受到各种情绪的伤痛,但如果 旁边有一个人告诉你:「这只是一场电影。」从那时起,你将从这种迷惑中获得自 由。另一方面,如果你没有功德,当身旁的人告诉你说:「嘿,这只是一场电影。」 的时候,正好背後有人很大声咳嗽,於是你没有听到身旁的人所说的话,於是错 过了了解的机会 — 这是因为没有功德。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 19:13
Also, if you don’t have merit, your ego is always there ready to interpret everything in its own way. Even though the teacher gives you the most important teaching, you will always interpret it according to your own agenda.
如果没有功德,自我总是准备好依照自己的的方式来解释事情,既或老师给你最 重要的教授,你还是按照自己的方式来解释它。

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 19:13
So at this point, instead of trying to outsmart the ego, the most important thing to do is to accumulate merit. How? There are lots of different ways. You can wear a tie and look handsome and think “This is an offering to my teacher.” If you are driving at night, when you see the street lamps, you can immediately visualize them as lamp offerings to the guru. If you can’t do this yourself, and if you see somebody else doing it, at least rejoice in what they are doing. There are so many things we can do. Kyabje Dudjom Rinpoche said, “Accumulating merit is so easy, in fact much easier than accumulating non-virtue.”
因此在这方面,与其试著比自我更聪明,还不如累积功德。如何累积呢?有许多 不同的方法,你可以带个领带,看起来很帅,然後想:「这是对老师的供养。」如 果你在晚上开车,看到街灯时,可以立刻观想这些成为对上师的供灯。如果自己 无法做,而你看到别人这样做,至少随喜别人所做的。有许多可以做的事。敦珠 仁波切说:「累积功德非常简单,事实上,这比累积不善行更容易。」

作者: 菩提光    时间: 2011-4-3 19:14
We need to have a grand, magnificent attitude. Devotion should be grand. I think if you have true devotion, everything can be taken as a manifestation of your guru.


自 2000  年 11  月份 Shambhala Sun  杂志 〈 www.shambhalasun.com  〉

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