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常用藏密翻譯詞彙

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发表于 2007-8-29 05:04:25 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
mara-(S.; T. du, "devil"). The tempter of Shakyamuni Buddha, who appeared just prior to his attaining enlightenment.The maras include misunderstanding the five skandhas as a self; being overpowered by conflicting emotions; death; and seduction by the bliss of meditation. Thus, maras are difficulties that the practitioner may encounter.
魔。(惡魔)在釋迦牟尼佛將成道前,來干擾他的魔道,種種惡魔包括誤解五蘊為己身;被煩惱所控制;死;受禪定大樂之引誘,亦即行者可能會遇到的困難。

mudra-(S.; T. chak gya, "sign, symbol, gesture"). A mudra may be any sort of symbol. Specifically, mudras are symbolic hand gestures that accompany sadhana practices.
手印。(符號,象徵,姿勢)可能是任何一種象徵,尤指配合修法的象徵手勢。

namo-(T. "homage"). Often used in the beginning of a song to pay homage to a buddha, deity, or teacher.
南無。(頂禮)常用在歌曲之首句以表對佛陀、本尊或上師的尊敬。

nectar-see amrita.
甘露。見amrita

ngondro-(T. "preliminary"). The four foundations, or preliminary practices, of Vajrayana Buddhism. They consist of refuge and prostrations, Vajrasattva's mantra, mandala offerings, and guru yoga.
四加行。(前行)金剛乘佛法之四基本前行修習,包含了皈依與頂禮、金剛薩埵咒、壇城供養及上師相應法。

Nirmanakaya-(S.; T. tulku, "emanation body"). The buddha who takes form in a physical body. see Trikaya.
化身。(化現身)以肉身示現之佛陀。

nirvana-(S.; T. nya ngen le depa, "gone beyond suffering"). According to the Hinayana tradition, nirvana means the cessation of ignorance and of conflicting emotions, and therefore freedom from compulsive rebirth in samsaric suffering. According to Mahayana tradition, this Hinayana nirvana is only a way station. Complete enlightenment requires not only the cessation of ignorance but also the compassion and skillful means to work with the bewilderment of all sentient beings.
涅槃。(超越痛苦)依據小乘傳統,涅槃意為無明與煩惱的止息,故不再被迫再生於輪迴痛苦中,依大乘而言,此種小乘的涅槃,只是其中一站而已,完全的證悟不僅需要無明的停止,還要慈悲與方便善巧,來幫助眾有情的困難。

Nyingma-(T., "ancient ones")One of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The original form of Vajrayana Buddhism brought to Tibet in the eighth century by Padmasambhava(Guru Rinpoche) and others.Practitioners are called Nyingmapas.
寧瑪。(古老的)西藏佛教四大派之一,乃蓮師及其他成就者在第八世紀帶至西藏的金剛乘佛教之最初形式,其行者稱為“寧瑪巴”。

obscurations, two-(T. drippa nyi). Conflicting emotions that obstruct liberation from suffering, and fundamental ignorance (primitive beliefs about reality) that obstruct omniscience.
二障。煩惱障阻礙了痛苦的解脫;所知障阻礙了全知。

paramitas, six-(S.; T. parol tu chinpa, "gone to the other side"). The main practices of the Mahayana. They are generosity, moral conduct, patience, exertion, meditation or concentration, and insight. They are called "gone to the other side" because, through the nondualistic mind, they transcend karmic entanglements of conventional virtue.
六波羅密、六度。(到彼岸)大乘之主要修持,佈施、持戒、忍辱、精進、禪定及般若智慧,被稱為“到彼岸”乃因經由無分別心,它們超越定業的業力牽引。

path-(T. lam). The practitioner's way to enlightenment.
道。行者達到證悟之路。

pecha-(T.) Text.
教本、文本、經。

poisons-(T. duk). Conflicting emotions. The three root poisons are attachment, anger, and ignorance. The five poisons include also pride and jealousy, and the six poisons include also greed.
毒。煩惱(衝突的情緒)根本三毒乃貪瞋痴,再加慢疑為五毒,加惡見為六毒。

practice lineage-(T. drup-gyu) A name for the Kagyu lineage, which emphasizes its strong allegiance to meditation practice.
實修傳承。噶舉傳承之一名,強調要熱切獻身於禪定修持。

prajna-(S.; T. sherab, "knowledge"). The ordinary sharpness of awareness that sees, discriminates, and also sees through conceptual discrimination.
般若。(知識)知覺的普通敏銳性,用以看之、辨之,並看透概念的辨別。

prajnaparamita-(S.; T. sherab chi parol tu chinpa, "perfection of knowledge"). The sixth paramita. Without prajna the other five transcendent actions would be impure.
般若波羅密多。(知識之完滿)第六度,無此,其他五波羅密將不清淨。

puja-see sadhana.
修法。

realization-(T. tokpa). The fruition of the path; the attainment of enlightenment or of a particular higher practice.
了悟。道的果位;證悟之達成或某特殊更高修持的成就。

realms, six-(T. rikdruk). All samsaric beings belong to one of the six realms. The higher realms are those of the gods, demigods, and humans. The lower realm are those of animals, hungry ghosts, and hell beings. In each realm there is a typical psychosocial pattern of jealousy, attachment, ignorance, greed, or anger).
六道。一切輪迴眾生皆屬其中之一,上三道乃天神,半神〈阿修羅〉及人類,下三道乃畜生,餓鬼及地獄道,各道中皆有一種基於六種煩惱(貪瞋痴慢疑惡見)之一而投生的典型精神狀態〔*依順序為天─慢,阿修羅─疑,人─貪,畜生─痴,餓鬼─惡見,地獄─瞋〕。

refuge-(T. chap-dro). By taking the refuge vow, one formally becomes a Buddhist. One takes refuge in the Triple Gem-Buddha as goal, Dharma as path, and Sangha as guide along the path.
皈依。經受皈依戒之後,即正式成為佛教徒,皈依對象為三寶─佛為目標,法為道,僧為道之指引。

rinpoche-(T.; "precious") A title used with the name of a high lama or as a form of address to him.
仁波切。〈寶貴的〉崇高上師其與名字合用之頭銜,或對其稱呼的型式。

root guru-(T. tsa-way lama). One of one's main gurus.
根本上師。行者主要上師之一。

Roots, Three-(T. tsa-wa sum). Guru, yidam, and protector.
三根本。上師、本尊、護法。

sadhana-(S.; T. choga, "liturgy"). A type of Vajrayana ritual text, describing the visualization and worship of a deity; the actual meditation practice it sets out.
法本。(儀軌)金剛乘儀式教本的一種型態,描述對本尊的觀想及禮讚,及其所展開的真實禪修。

Sakya-One of the four main schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
薩迦。西藏佛教的四大派之一。

samadhi-(S.; T. ting-ngele-dzin, "fixing the mind, meditative absorption"). A state of total involvement in which the mind rests unwaveringly.
三摩地。(心止,住於禪定中)其心住於不搖的完全投注之境界中。

Samantabhadra-(S; T. Kuntu Zangpo, "all good"). The primordial Dharmakaya buddha, blue in color and naked, often depicted in consort with Kuntu Zangmo, who is white in color.
普賢王如來。(皆善)原始法身佛〈昆圖桑波〉,藍色身裸,常繪其與佛母〈昆圖桑嫫〉相擁,後者為白色。

samaya-(T. dam-tsik, "sacred words"). The sacred vow which binds the practitioner to his or her practice and lama.
三昧耶。(聖言)將行者與其修法及上師相結的聖誓。

Sambhogakaya-(S.; T. longku, "enjoyment body"). The environment of compassion and communication. The visionary and communicative aspect of Dharmakaya.
報身。(受樂身)慈悲與溝通的環境,法身佛之幻化的,用來溝通的型態。

samsara-(S.; T. khorwa, "circumambulating"). In contrast to nirvana, samsara is the vicious cycle of transmigratory existence. It arises out of inability to purify oneself of the six conflicting emotions. Samsara is characterized by suffering.
輪迴。(不斷移動)涅槃之相反,乃轉世投生的惡性循環,源自對自身的六毒之無法清淨,其特性為痛苦。

sangha-(S.; T. gendun, "the virtuous ones"). The ordinary sangha are all the practitioners of Buddhism, and the exalted Sangha are those who are liberated from samsara.
僧。〈美德者〉普通的僧人指佛教之所有行者,崇高的僧人則指脫離輪迴者。

Shakyamuni-(T. Shakya-tuppa). The historical Buddha. Shakya is a tribe of ancient India, and Shakyamuni means "sage of the Shakyas."
釋迦牟尼。(過去)歷史之佛,釋迦乃古印度之一部落,釋迦牟尼意為“釋迦族之賢者”。

shamata-(S.: T. zhi-ne, "peaceful abiding"). A basic meditation practice common to most schools of Buddhism. It aim is to quiet the mind and focus it free from distraction. It lays the foundation for vipashyana.
奢摩地〈止〉。(平靜安住)佛教大部份各派之相同的基本禪修,其目的在使心安靜,並專注使之不分散,乃 “觀”的基礎。

shunyata-(S.; T. tongpa nyi, "emptiness"). A doctrine emphasized in Mahayana, which stresses that all phenomena are devoid of inherent, concrete existence.
空性。(空虛)大乘之重點教義,強調一切現象皆無原本即有且實體之存在。

siddhi-(S.; T. ngodrup, "accomplishment"). Blessings or accomplishments. The ordinary siddhis involve mastery over the phenomenal world. Supreme siddhi is enlightenment.
成就。(成就)加持或成就,普通成就指對現象世界的精熟,無上成就則指證悟。

skandha-(S.; T. pungpo, "heap"). The five skandhas are the psychological aggregates which make up the personality of the individual and his or her experiences. They are form, feeling, perception, formation, and consciousness. In Vajrayana, the skandhas correspond to the five buddha potentials.
蘊。(堆積)五蘊指造成個人人格及其經驗的種種心理的聚合物,各為色、受、想、行、識,在金剛乘中,五蘊與五佛部之潛力息息相關。

stupa-(S.; T. choten). Originally a memorial mound containing the relics of the Buddha, symbolizing the mind of the Buddha, the Dharmakaya. Later, the relics of other enlightened beings, scripture, statues, and so on were included in stupas. Choten means the objects of veneration, ranging from simple altar pieces to very large structures that may be seen for miles around.
舍利塔。原為存放佛陀舍利子的紀念墩,象徵佛陀之心,即法身佛,其後,其他證悟者的舍利子,經典、佛像等等亦皆存放其內,藏文choten之意乃尊貴之物體,其範圍小祭壇之灰燼大至遠遠數碼外可見之建築。

sugatagarbha-(S.; T. deshek nyingpo). Buddha nature as it manifests on the path.
善逝藏〈佛性〉。於解脫道上展現的佛性。

sutra-(T.do) see Tripitaka.
經藏。

Svabhavikakaya-(S.; T. ngo-wo nyid-kyi-ku). The essential body of intrinsic nature that encompasses and transcends the three kayas. see Trikaya.
自性身。內在自性的本質身,包容且超越了三身,見Trikaya

tantra-(S.; T. gyud, "continuity"). Tantra means continuity, and refers to continuity throughout the ground, path, and fruition of the journey. For the practitioner, this means that body, speech, and mind, in all their confused and wakeful manifestations, are included in the path. Tantra specifically refers to the root texts of the Vajrayana and the system of meditation they describe.
密續。(連續)意即連續指道上之因、道、果的相連性,對行者而言所指為身、口、意,其種種迷惑的及覺醒的化現皆在解脫道內,尤指金剛乘之根本經典及其所描述的禪修系統。

Tara-(S., "savioress"; T. Drolma, "liberator lady"). An emanation of Avalokiteshvara, Tara is said to have arisen from one of his tears. Emdodying female enlightenment and the feminine aspect of compassion, she removes fears and obstacles, and is a very popular deity in Tibet. Her two common iconographic forms are white and green.
度母。(女性救度者)(度眾的女)乃觀音的化現,相傳為由其眼淚中產生,代表女性的證悟及女性方面的慈悲,她清除害怕及障礙,在西藏為很有名的本尊,其兩種常見的畫像為白色及綠色。

tashi delek-(T., "may all be auspiciously well"). An all-purpose greeting used on holidays and special occasions.
吉祥如意。(願一切吉祥如意)可用於各種假期或特殊場合的廣用問候語。

Tathagata-(S.; T. dezhin-shekpa). Synonymous with "buddha," used especially for the five Sambhogakaya buddhas.
如來。與佛陀同義,尤用於五報身佛。

torma-(T.; S. bali). A sculpture often made out of flour and molded butter, used as a shrine offering, a feast offering substance, or a representation of deities.
食子。常以麵粉及奶油作成的塑形,用來當佛堂的供養物、薈供品或代表本尊。

Trikaya-(S.; T. kusum, "three bodies"). The three aspects of buddhahood-Dharmakaya, Sambhogakaya, and Nirmanakaya.
三身。佛境之三體─法身、報身、化身。

Tripitaka-(S., "three baskets"). The teachings of Buddha Shakyamuni, later organized into the vinaya, the sutras, and the abhidharma. The vinaya is primarily concerned with monastic discipline or moral conduct; the sutra is usually in the form of dialogues between the Buddha and his disciples, concerning meditation and philosophy, and the abhidharma contains the higher metaphysical treatises regarding the nature of reality.
三藏。釋迦牟尼佛的教義,由後人編成戒律、經典及論藏,戒律主要有關僧侶戒條或道德行為;經典常以佛與弟子間之對話型式來講述禪修及哲理;論藏則包含有關實相自性的更高形而上學之論文。

Triyana-(S.; T. tek-pa sum). Three stages or vehicles of practice.
三乘。修法的三階段或三車乘。

Truths, Two-(T. denpa-nyi). Ultimate truth is emptiness or shunyata. Realtive truth belongs to the conventional level of truth. The two truths are inseparable from each other.
二真理。究竟真理乃空性,相對真理則屬常規級的真理,二者不可分離。

tsok offering-Blessing and offering of food and drink made in the context of a deity practice.
薈供。在某本尊修法中所作的食物飲料等供養與加持。

tulku-(T.; S. Nirmanakaya, "emanation body"). An incarnantion of a previous realized being.
化身。<即梵文之Nirmanakaya)已證悟者之轉世。

upaya-(S.; T. tap, "skillful means"). Enlightened beings, through the development of wisdom and the onmiscient state of mind, know exactly how, when, and in what form to present the teachings to make them suitable to each individual being, without error. Upaya is an expression of compassion.
善巧。證悟者經由智慧的發展及心的無所不知之境而知道要恰在何時、如何、以什麼方式來提出這些教義並使之適於各種不同眾生而不出錯,善巧(方便)乃慈悲的一種表現。

vajra-(S., "adamantine,diamond,indestructible";T.dorje, "noble stone")One of the five buddha families,the vajra family is associated with the buddha Akshobya of the eastern direction. Its quality is pristine clarity and indestructibility. In general, the term vajra conveys the sense of what is beyond arising and ceasing and hence indestructible. A vajra is also a ritual scepter used in Vajrayana practice.
金剛。(堅固的、金讚的、不可摧的)(尊聖石)五佛部之一,與東方阿閃佛(不動佛)相關連,其特質乃原古的明性及不可毀,普通來說,此字表達著超越升、止(不生不滅)故而不可摧毀的意味,金剛(杵)亦為金剛乘修法中的重要儀式器具。

Vajradhara-(S.; T. Dorje Chang). The name of the Dharmakaya buddha. He is depicted as dark blue, and is particularly important to the Kagyu lineage as it is said that Tilopa received Vajrayana teaching directly from Vajradhara.
金剛持。(多傑)法身佛之名,被描繪成黑藍色,對噶舉派來說尤其重要,因相傳帝洛巴乃直接自金剛持得到金剛乘教義。

Vajrasattva-(S.; T. Dorje Sempa). A buddha of the vajra family, Vajrasattva is white and is associated with purity. The Vajrasattva mantra is used in many practices, most notably ngondro.
金剛薩埵。(多傑森巴)金剛佛部裡一佛,身白與純淨相連,金剛薩埵咒用於許多修法,尤以四加行最著。

Vajrayana-(S.; T. dorje tekpa, "indestructible vehicle"). The vehicle, or yana, of tantra. Vajrayana encorporates both Hinayana and Mahayana disciplines. see also yana, tantra.
金剛乘。(多傑泰巴,不可催之車乘)指密續乘,金剛乘相連著小乘及大乘的訓練。

Vidyadhara-Holder of knowledge or insight.
持明者。知識或直覺之持有者。

vinaya-see Tripitaka.
律藏。

vipashyana-(S.; T. Ihak thong). Having calmed the mind through shamata meditation, the practitioner may begin to have insight into an unimaginable experience of the qualities within one. This clear seeing of the patterns of mind is known as vipashyana. It expands into wisdom.
觀、毘婆奢那。已由「」(奢摩地)禪修而安其心後,行者或能開始覺在自性內一種無法想像之體驗,此種能清楚觀看到種種心的狀態的情形稱之為「觀」,由此擴展為智慧。

yana-(S.; T. tekpa, "vehicle"). The vehicle that carries the practitioner along the path to liberation. In different yanas, the landscapes of the journey, the nature of the practitioner, and the mode of transportation are seen differently. There is a distinctive outlook, practice, action, and fruition in each yana. The particular yana presented depends on the evolutionary readiness of the student and the accomplishment of the teacher.
乘。攜帶行者走於解脫道上之車乘,不同的法乘有不同的看法:此旅程中的風景、行者之自性、運輸的方式等,各乘對之見地、修法、行為及道果亦有所不同。至於不同各乘之顯現乃依學生的根器(準備的程度)及老師的成就而定。

yidam-The Vajrayana practitioner's personal deity, who embodies the practitioner's awakened nature. Yidams are Sambhogakaya buddhas, who are visualized in accordance with the psychosocial makeup of the practitioner. The student first develops intense devotion toward the guru. This relationship makes it possible for the student to experience intuitive kinship with the lineage and then with the yidam. Identifying with the yidam means that the student identifies with his or her own characteristic expresion of buddha nature, free of distortions. Through seeing one's basic nature in this universalized way, all aspects of it are transmuted into the wisdom of the spiritual path. This leads directly to compassionate action-skillful and lucid.
本尊。金剛乘行者個人專修的本尊,代表行者覺醒自性的化身,本尊乃報身佛,依行者心理構造而觀想之,學生最初要對上師產生強烈奉獻心,此種關係使之有可能去經歷與此傳承的直覺相屬感,而後對本尊有之與本尊相應意為學生認識自己佛性的特質表現,而無扭曲,經由以此一般化方法來見到自己本性之後,其所有的方面皆可轉化成精神道上的智慧。如此直接導致慈悲的行為亦即方便與明淨。

yoga-(S.; T. naljor). A psychophysical method of spiritual development, concerned with the direction of energy and consciousness. A method to release the intuitive knowledge latent in the heart by learning to control the dispersive tendencies of mind and body.
瑜珈。(那優)發展精神的精神物理方法與能源及意識的方向有關,此法用來解開心中潛藏的直覺知識,方式為經由學習去控制心與身的分散傾向。

yogin/yogini-(S.; T. naljorpa/naljorma). A male or female practitioner of yoga.
瑜珈士 / 瑜珈女〈那優巴/那優瑪〉瑜珈行者,男性或女性。

 楼主| 发表于 2007-8-29 05:05:39 | 显示全部楼层
abhisheka-see empowerment
灌頂

abhidharma-see Tripitaka
論藏。見「三藏」。

accumulations, two-(T.tsok-nyi) The accumulation of merit is developed through physical and material devotion to the spiritual path and compassionate action to living beings. This creates conditions favorable to enlightenment, and results in the accumulation of wisdom, which is the realization gained from meditation practice.
二資糧。功德之累積乃經由對 (1) 精神(心靈)道的身體及物質奉獻與 (2) 對眾性的慈悲行動而發展,如此開始了證悟的良善因緣,並產生智慧之累積,後者為自禪修當中得到了悟。

Amitabha-(S.;T. O-pa-me) The Sambhogakaya Buddha of Boundless Light, red in color and of the padma family. See buddha families.
阿彌陀佛。無量光佛之報身佛,身紅、屬蓮花部,見「佛部」。

amrita-(S.; T. dutsi) The nectar of meditative bliss; also the consecrated liquid used in Vajrayana meditation practices.
甘露。禪定大樂之甘;亦指金剛乘禪修中所用之奉獻液體。

arhat-(S.;T. dra-chompa, "foe destroyer") One who has attained the result of the Hinayana path by purifying the conflicting emotions and their causes.
阿羅漢。(殺賊)已達小乘道果位者,乃經由淨化煩惱及其起因而達成。

auspicious coincidence-(T.ten-drel) A kind of synchronicity; the coming together of factors in a situation or event in a manner that is fitting and proper.
吉祥之巧合〈因緣和合〉。某種一致性;一情況或事件之種種因素以配合及適當的方式聚集。

Avalokiteshvara-see Chenrezig
觀音菩薩。

bardo-(T., "between two") A gap or intermediate state. Often used in reference to the chonyi bardo, the intermediate state between death and rebirth. Other bardos include the dream bardo and the meditation bardo.

中陰。(二者之間)分隔或中間狀態,常用來指chonyi bardo,死與再生之間的中間狀態,其他中陰身包括睡夢及禪定中陰身。

bhumi-(S.; T. sa, "stage") One of the ten stages of realization on the bodhisattva path. The first bhumi begins with great joy and the stabilized realization of shunyata.
地。(階段)菩薩道上之十種了悟階段,初地始於極喜與對空性之堅定了悟。

blessings-(T. chinlab, "splendor wave"). The experience of bliss that results from one's devotion in opening oneself to the guru in meditation practice.
加持。(壯麗之波動)在禪修中因由對上師的(虔誠)坦白之奉獻而產生的大樂經驗。

bliss-(S.sukha;T.dewa).A meditative experience of calm happiness.
大樂。靜定快樂的禪定經驗。

bodhichitta-(S.; T. jangchup chisem, "mind of enlightenment"). Relative bodhichitta is the aspiration to develop loving kindness and compassion and to deliver all sentient beings from samsara. Absolute bodhichitta is actually working to save all beings. According to Gampopa, absolute bodhichitta is shunyata indivisible from compassion-radiant, unshakable, and impossible to formulate with concepts.
菩提心。(證悟之心)相對菩堤心乃發願生起慈心及悲心並度一切有情眾生超脫輪迴,絕對菩堤心則實際為救眾生之行動,根據甘波巴所言,此乃與悲心不可分之空性─燦爛,不可動搖,且不可能以概念表示。

bodhisattva-(S.,"awakened being"; T. jangchup sempa, "enlightenment-mind hero"). In one sense, a person who has vowed to attain perfect buddhahood for the benefit of all beings, and who has begun to progress through the ten bhumis of the bodhisattva path. In another sense, a being who has already attained perfect buddhahood but who, through the power of the bodhisattva vow, returns to the world for the benefit of beings.
菩提薩埵、菩薩。(覺醒者)(具證悟心之英雄)一種意義為發誓為利眾生而成佛,並已行於菩薩十地者;另一意為已成佛但依菩薩願力而回到世間利眾者。

bodhisattva vow-(T.jang-dam). The commitment to work on the Mahayana path for the enlightenment of all beings; this is a vow taken in a formal ceremony in the presence of the guru.
菩薩戒。為令眾生證悟而行大乘道之誓願;此戒受於上師,並經正式儀式。

Bodhisattvayana-see Mahayana.
菩薩乘。見Mahayana大乘。

buddha-(S., "awakened, enlightened"; T. sang-gye, "eliminated and blossomed"). May refer to the principle of enlightenment or to any enlightened being, in particular to Shakyamuni Buddha, the historical buddha of our age. A buddha is called a "Victorious One."
佛陀。(覺醒的,證悟的)(消除的及綻放的)可指證悟之要素或任何證悟者,特別是釋迦牟尼佛,乃此劫的歷史記載之佛─佛陀之稱呼為「尊勝者」。

buddha families-(T. sang-gye chi rik). The families of the five Sambhogakaya buddhas and their five wisdoms. Everything in the world can be expressed in terms of the predominant energy of one of these five families, and all deities in Tibetan iconography are associated with one of the five buddhas. In samsaric experience, the five wisdoms become translated into the five poisons, which are conflicting emotions. The five families and their corresponding colors, buddhas, wisdoms, and conflicting emotions are, respectively1) white, buddha, Vairochana, all-pervading wisdom, and ignorance; (2) blue, vajra, Akshobya, mirror-like wisdom, and aggression; (3)yellow, ratna, Ratnasambava, wisdom of equanimity, and pride; (4) red, padma, Amitabha, wisdom of discriminating awareness, and passion; (5) green, karma, Amoghasiddhi, all-accomplishing wisdom, and envy. (Lists taken from various sources may differ slightly.)
佛部。五報身佛部及其五智,世間一切皆可以五佛部之某一部的優越能量來表示,而西藏聖像學之所有本尊皆與某佛部有關。在輪迴經驗中,五智被轉成五毒,即煩惱,以下為五佛部之相關顏色、佛、智及煩惱。

buddha nature-(S. sugatagarbha; T.dezhin shekpai nyingpo). Refers to the basic goodness of all beings, the inherent potential within each person to attain complete buddhahood regardless of race, gender, or nationality.
佛性。指眾生之原具良善,不分種族、性別或國籍皆可成佛且眾人生來即有之潛能。

Buddhadharma-(S.; T. san-gye chi cho, ten-pay ten-pa). The teachings of the Buddha. Often is used in preference to the term "Buddhism.".
佛法。佛陀之教法,較“佛教”一字為常用。

chakra-(S.;T. khorlo, "circle, wheel"). One of the five primary energy centers of the subtle body, located along the central channel at the crown of the head, throat, heart, navel, and genitals.
輪。(圈、輪)微妙肉身五種主要能量中心之一,位居中脈所經之頭冠、喉、心、臍與密處。

Chenrezig-(T.;S.Avalokiteshvara).The bodhisattva of compassion; the union or essence of compassion of all the buddhas. His Holiness the 16th Gyalwa Karmapa was believed to be an emanation of Chenrezig, as is His Holiness the Dalai Lama.
觀音菩薩(指白色)。大悲菩薩;諸佛悲心之結合或精髓,十六世大寶法王被視為觀音之化身,達賴喇嘛亦如是。

coemergent wisdom-(S. sahajajnana; T. then chik che pay yeshe). The simultaneous arising of samsara and nirvana, giving birth to wisdom.
俱生智慧。輪迴及涅槃之同生而產生智慧。

compassion-(S. karuna; T. nying-je). The motivation and action of a bodhisattva, and the guiding principle of the Mahayana path. Compassion arises from experiencing the suffering of oneself and others or from relinquishing one's attachment to samsara, or it may develop spontaneously from the recognition of shunyata.
悲心。菩薩之動機與行動,亦是大乘道的指導原則,悲心升起於體會個人及眾生之痛苦或放棄個人對輪迴之執著,亦可因對空性之認知而自然發生。

conflicting emotions-see poisons.
五毒煩惱。見poisons.
dakini-(S.; T. khandroma, "space walker"). A wrathful or semiwrathful female yidam, signifying the feminine energy principle. The dakinis are crafty and playful, representing the basic space of fertility out of which both samsara and nirvana arise. They inspire the union of skillful means and wisdom. More generally, a dakini can be a type of messenger or protector. A daka is the male counterpart to a dakini.
空行。(空中行走者)忿怒或半忿怒女性本尊,表示女性能量要素,空行母是狡猾且愛開玩笑的,代表著輪迴與涅槃所升起處的富饒基本空間,她們激發善巧方便及智慧的結合,更普通來說,可指某種傳訊者或保護者,daka則為相對於dakini的男性角色。

damaru-(S.). A small hand drum, usually two-headed, made of either skulls or wood, and used frequently in Vajrayana practice.
手鼓、顱鼓。小手鼓,常具二面,以頭顱或木頭製造,在金剛乘修法中常用。

dark age-The present world age, characterized by degraded society, warfare, perverted views, and lack of faith in spirituality, including the degeneration of all discipline, morality, and wisdom.
末法時期。現在的時期,特性為降級的社會、爭鬥、邪見及對心靈精神失去信心,此項包括所有戒律、道德及智慧的墮落。

Dewachen-(T., "great bliss"; S. Sukhavati). The western pure land of Buddha Amitabha. One can practice meditation and achieve enlightenment in the pure lands without danger of falling into the cycle of samsara. Not to be confused with heaven, or the realm of the gods, which in Buddhism is considered to be only a materialistic paradise.
極樂世界。(極樂)阿彌陀佛之西方淨土,在此淨土可修習禪定並達證悟而不會再有落入輪迴危險,勿與“天堂”混淆,亦非天神之界,在佛教中視此為物質化(唯物)的樂園。

dharma-(S.; T. cho, "truth, law"). There are thirteen different meanings altogether for the word "dharma." It can refer to the ultimate truth, the Buddha's teaching, or the law governing all existence.
法。此字有十三種解釋,可指究竟真理,佛陀教法或控制一切存在之定律。

Dharma protector-(S. dharmapala; T. cho chong, "protector of the Dharma"). A type of deity who protects the practitioner from deceptions and obstacles. Although usually wrathful, the Dharmapalas are compassionate, performing the enlightened actions of pacifying,enrichings,magnetizing, and destroying,thus protecting the integrity of the teachings and practice.
護法。一種本尊,乃保護行者遠離迷惑及障礙,雖然常現忿怒相,護法是悲心的,展現息、增、懷、之證悟行為,如此來保護教義與修習(實修)的整合一致性(完整)。

Dharmachakra-(S.; T. cho chi khorlo, "wheel of Dharma"). Generally, this term is used in expressions such as Dharmachakra pravartana ("turning the wheel of Dharma"), which refers to teaching the Dharma. More technically, it can refer to the heart chakra.
法輪。一般來說常用於表示如“轉法輪”之意,所指為教導佛法,技術上而言可指心輪。

Dharmadhatu-(S.; T. cho-ying, "sphere of Dharma"). The all-encompassing space or unconditional totality-unoriginating and unchanging-in which all phenomena arise, dwell, and cease.
法界。(法之範圍)包容一切的空間或不受因緣影響的完全(整體性)─不源生亦不改變─一切現象自此升起、住留且停止。

Dharmakaya-(S.; T. choku, "body of truth"). Enlightenment itself, wisdom beyond any reference point-unoriginated, primordial mind, devoid of content. see Trikaya.
法身。(真理之身)證悟本身、超越任何考證的智慧─非源起的,原始即具的心,並無容量可言,見Trikaya

Dharmata-(S.; T. cho-nyi, "Dharma itself"). The essence of reality; completely pure nature.
法性。(法本身)真實的要素;完全地清淨本性。

doha-(S.) A verse or song spontaneously composed by Vajrayana practitioners as an expression of their realization, as for example the Dharma songs collected in the Rain of Wisdom.
金剛詩偈、證道歌。金剛乘行者在表示其了悟時自發所寫的詩節或歌曲,譬如「智慧之雨」一書中所收集的〔法曲〕*歌偈。

Dorje Chang-see vajradhara.
總持。

elements-(T. jungwa). According to the Abidharma, all materiality can be seen as having the qualities of one of the four elements-earth, water, fire, and air.
四大元素。依據論藏,一切物質可視為含有四大─地水火風─之一種性質。

empowerment-(S. abhisheka; T. wangkur). An initiation conferred privately or to groups enabling those who receive it to practice a particular mediation or yogic method under a qualified spiritual master.
灌頂。私下或團體中給與的傳授(開啟)。使受者能修行一特殊禪定或瑜珈法,需經具德上師允許。

emptiness-see shunyata, Dharmakaya, Dharmata.
空性。見shunyata法身及法性。

enlightenment-(T. jangchup). Jang refers to the total purification of the two obscurations, and chup refers to perfected wisdom that encompasses both relative and ultimate truths.
證悟。jang(蔣)指二障之完全清淨,chup(卻)指包容相對及絕對真理的完全(完美)智慧。

Four Noble Truths-(T. pakpay denpa shi). The truths that unenlightened existence is permeated by suffering; that the cause of suffering is delusion operating through dualistic clinging and the resulting emotional and karmic patterns; that an experience beyond suffering is possible; and that there is a path that can lead beings to the experience of the cessation of suffering.
四聖諦。此四真理為:(苦)未證悟之存在及充滿痛苦,(集)痛苦之因乃經由二元執著而起(作用)之虛妄及其(結果)導致的情緒與業力型態;(滅)超越痛苦之經驗是可能的;(道)有一法門(道路)可領引眾生達到痛苦停止的經驗。



gates, three-(T. go-sum). Body, speech, and mind. The three modes through which one relates to the phenomenal world.
三門。身、口、意,某人與現象世界乃經此三方式而相連。

Gelug-(T.). The order of Tibetan Buddhism founded by Tsong Khapa (1357-1419). Gelug refers to the teachings of this lineage, and Gelugpa to its practitioners.
格魯。西藏佛教之一派,由宗喀巴大師成立,本字指其傳承之教義,格魯巴則指其修行者。

ghanta-(T. drilbu). Bell used with vajra (dorje) in Tantric rituals.
鈴。在密續儀式中與金剛杵合用之鈴。

Guru Rinpoche-Guru Padmasambhava, also known as the "Lotus Born"; with Atisa, responsible for the "second spreading" of the Dharma in Tibet.
蓮師。蓮華生上師亦即"Lotus-Born"(生於蓮花)與阿底峽尊者共同促成佛法在西藏的「二度傳播」。

guru-Religious teacher, also called spiritual friend. see Roots, Three.
上師。宗教老師,亦稱法侶,見“根本”。

guru yoga-Last of the four special foundations or ngondro practices.
上師瑜珈。四加行之第四。

Gyalwa-A title meaning "victorious,"" as in Gyalwa Karmapa.
嘉華。意為「尊勝」之頭銜,如“嘉華噶瑪巴”。

Hinayana-(S.; T. tek-chung, tek-men, "lesser vehicle"). The first of the three yanas, which is subdivided into the Shravakayana and Pratyekabuddhayana. The aim of Hinayana practice is personal liberation from suffering.
小乘。三乘第一,分為聲聞乘及緣覺乘,小乘修行之目標為個人自痛苦中解脫。

Immeasurables, Four-(S. apramana; T. tse-me shi). A prayer recited especially during ngondro practice. Maitri is loving kindness, the wish that all beings have happiness and the cause of happiness. Karuna is compassion, the wish that all beings be free from suffering and the causes of suffering. Mudita is great joy, the wish that all beings never be sparated from the great bliss that is free from all suffering. Upeksha is equanimity, the wish that all beings dwell in the great impartiality that is free from all attraction and aversion.
四無量。尤常在四加行中所唸誦之祈禱文。

Maitri─慈者與樂也-願一切眾生得樂及樂因。

Karana─悲者拔苦也-願一切眾生離苦及苦因。

Muditaa─喜者助人離苦得樂而喜也-願一切眾生未曾且永不被剝奪遠離痛苦之大樂。

Upeksha─捨者平等也-願一切眾生住於遠離一切執愛與執惡的大平等中。

impermanence-(S. anitya; T. mitakpa). The doctrine that the material world is characterised by constant change and the nonexistence of phenomena.
無常(諸行無常)。此教義乃指:物質(器)世間的特性為不斷的改變及現象的非存在。

interdependence-(T. tendrel). The doctrine that all phenomena are related in their appearance and manifestation. No event arises that is not related to all other events.
互相依存(諸法無我)。此教義為指:所有現象以其外觀與顯現而互相關連,沒有一件事情的升起不與其他事件相關。

Jetsun-(T., "revered"). An honorific term applied to great teachers.
尊者。敬愛的。對偉大老師的尊稱。

Jewels, Three-(S. triratna; T. konchok sum). Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha-the three objects of refuge. Buddha is an example of a human being who transcended confusion, and also refers to enlightenment itself. Dharma includes the teachings that are told and written, as well as their realization-the Dharma that is experienced. Sangha is the community of practitioners and also the assemblage of realized ones.
寶,三寶。佛、法、僧,三個皈依的對象。佛陀乃身為人而能超越迷妄的榜範,並可指證悟本身。法包括教導和紀錄下來的法教,以及由於體驗法教而得到的了悟。僧則是修行者的社群,以及證悟者的集眾。

jnana-(S.; T. yeshe, "primordial knowing"). Discriminating awareness wisdom that transcends all dualistic conception.
智慧。超越一切二元對立概念的妙觀察智慧。

Kagyu-(T.; abbreviation for ka shi gyupa, "lineages of the four commissioned ones"). One of the four main lineages of Tibetan Buddhism originating with Vajradhara Buddha and transmitted to the Indian master Tilopa. It was then transmitted in succession to Naropa, Marpa, Milarepa, and Gampopa. It is also called the "practice lineage" because of its emphasis on direct experiential practice and intuitive understanding of the teachings. There are four main subsects of the Kagyu lineage, the largest being the Karma Kagyu, or Karma Kamtshang-the lineage founded by Dusum Khyenpa, the first Gyalwa Karmapa, who was a disciple of Gampopa.
噶舉,噶居。藏傳佛教四大派別之一,源自金剛持佛,傳至印度大師帝諾巴。隨後由那洛巴、馬爾巴、密勒日巴、岡波巴傳承。也稱為「實修傳承」,因其著重於直接體證的修持和對於法教的直覺了解。其中又分為四個主派,最大的為噶瑪噶居或噶瑪岡倉,由岡波巴的弟子、第一世大寶法王度松虔巴所創立。

kalpa-(T.). An extremely long eon, sometimes reckoned at 4,320 million years.
劫。極長的時期,有時計算為四三二億年。

Kangyur-(T.). Tantric teachings of the Buddha.
甘珠爾。佛陀的密傳教法。

Kapala-(S.;T. topa, "skull cup"). A symbolic implement used in Vajrayana practices.
嘎巴拉、顱器。金剛乘修持中用到的象徵法器。

Karma-(S., "action"). The doctrine of cause and result, which states that one's present experience is a product of previous actions and volitions, and future conditions depend on one's present conduct.
業、行。因果法則,現今的體驗乃過去行動和意志的產物,未來的條件則有賴現今的行為。

Karmapa-(T. trin-le-pa, "activity"). The head of the Karma Kagyu sect of Tibetan Buddhism, a fully enlightened bodhisattva and an emanation of Avalokiteshvara. Historically, the first line of recognized reincarnating lamas of which Dusum Khyenpa was the first.
大寶法王、噶瑪巴。藏傳佛教噶居派的法王,完全證悟的菩薩,觀音菩薩的化身。以歷史來說,第一世大寶法王度松虔巴乃是所有轉世喇嘛受到認證的第一個傳承。

Kham-A province in eastern Tibet where the Kagyu lineage enjoyed great popularity.
康。西藏東部的省份,噶居派在此盛行。

khatak-(T.). A long white scarf, customarily presented in Tibet as a sign of salutation and respect.
卡達。長白的領巾,在西藏為禮賀及尊敬的符號。

Khenpo-(T.). Title of the abbot of a Tibetan monastery or a professor of sacred litreature.
堪布。西藏廟宇的住持之頭銜或指神聖經文的教授。

Klesha-(S.; T. nyonmong, "defilement, delusion"). A mental state that produces conflicting emotions and confusion, and thus disturbs mental well-being and peace.
煩惱。(染污;虛妄)產生情緒問題及迷惑的心智狀態,以致於干擾了心智的自在及平靜。

Kriya yoga-(S.; T. ja-gyu). The first tantric yana, which emphasizes purity and the understanding that all phenomena are inherently pure and sacred. The deities are visualized as external and transparent, and the practitioner emphasizes purification and ritual action.
作密(事密)。第一個密續乘,強調清淨及對一切現象原本清淨且神聖的了解,在此瑜珈中本尊被觀想為外在及透明的,行者則重於淨化及修法。

lama-(T., "superior mother"; S. guru). A religious teacher or meditation teacher who has completed the traditional three year, three month retreat and been appointed by his or her teacher.
上師。〈無上的母親〉─宗教老師或禪修導師,已完成傳統之三年三個月的閉關且被其老師所指認。

lung-(T., "connection"). A transmission blessing in which a master reads through a sadhana or liturgy, usually quite rapidly, thereby empowering the hearers to practice it
口傳。(連接)上師讀閱一法本或儀軌之傳法加持,經常讀得很快,以為聽者灌頂而使可修之。

Mahakala-(S.; T. Nakpo Chenpo, "great black one," or Bernakchen, "black-gowned one" (two-armed Mahakala)) Mahakalas are the chief Dharmapalas, or wrthful protectors of the Dharma. A female Mahakala is a Mahakali.
瑪哈嘎拉。(大黑天;黑袍者─二臂瑪哈嘎拉)為主要護法,佛法之忿怒相護,其女性為瑪哈嘎哩。

Mahamudra-(S.; T. chak gya chenpo, "great symbol"). The great seal, or ultimate nature of the mind, which is not stained by the kleshas. Another term for enlightenment, Mahamudra refers to the meditative transmission handed down especially
by the Kagyu school, from Vajradhara Buddha to Tilopa, and so on down in a direct line to the present lineage holders.

大手印。(偉大象徵)偉大的封印,或心的究意自性,未被煩惱污染。為「證悟」之另一種術語,尤指噶舉派的禪修傳承,自金剛持佛至帝洛巴,並延續直接傳至現在之傳承持有者。

Mahayana-(S.;T. tek chen, "great vehicle"). The second teaching Buddha presented on Vulture Peak Mountain, where he emphasized the importance of uniting compassion and wisdom.
大乘。佛陀的靈鷲山上第二次所傳之法,強調慈悲與智慧的結合。

Maitreya-(S.; T. Jampa). the coming Buddha-in other words, the Buddha who will appear next after Shakyamuni in this present kalpa, or age. Maitreya Buddha will not appear for tens of thousands of years.
彌勒佛。未來佛,即出現在此劫中,釋迦牟尼佛之後的佛陀,那將是數萬年後。

mala-(S.; t. trengwa). A rosary, usually strung with 108 beads.
念珠。一串念珠,常為108小珠串成。

mandala-(S.; T. chilkhor, "center and periphery"). Arrangement of deities or their emblems, usually in the form of a circle, representing a pattern, structure or group. Mandalas may be painted, made of colored sand or heaps of rice, or represented by three-dimensional models.
壇城(曼達拉)。(中央及周圍)本尊或其象徵之排列,常為環狀,代表─型式、結構或團體,可為畫的、用有色沙做成,或米堆,或以三度空間(立體)模型來表示。

Manjushri-(S.; T. Jampalyang, "gentle and glorious"). One of the chief bodhisattvas, Manjushri is depicted with a sword and a book. The sword represents prajna. He is known as the Bodhisattva of Knowledge and learning and is generally considered to be of the vajra family.
文殊菩薩。(溫良的及榮耀的)乃主要之菩薩,右持劍左捧書,劍代表般若,乃學習及智慧之菩薩,常視為金剛部之一。

Mantra-(S.;T.ngak).Mantra is explained in the tantras as that whic h protects the cohesiveness of the vajra mind.It is a means of transforming energy through sound,expressed by speech,breathing,and movement.Mantra is usually done in conjunction with visualization and mudra, according to the prescriptions of a sadhana transmitted by one's guru. Mantras are composed of Sanskrit words or syllables expressing the essense, quality, or power of a specific deity.
咒(真言)。在密續中解釋為保護金剛心之凝聚性者,其方法為經由聲音來轉化能量而用言語、呼吸及動作來表達,常與觀想及手印連合,並依行者之上師所傳法本的規定來做,咒語由梵文之文字或字母組成,表達某特殊本尊之本質、功德或力量。

Mantrayana-see Vajrayana.
真言乘。見Vajrayana.

发表于 2007-8-29 11:15:42 | 显示全部楼层
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