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转载:宗萨钦哲仁波切关于奢摩他之开示

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发表于 2007-8-7 11:40:38 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
第二期 奢摩他之开示

宗萨钦哲仁波切曾在许多国家和场合,讲授奢摩他(或称为“止”)作为定心与安心的方法,本文是节录自仁波切在澳洲雪梨的奢摩他开示,原文登于1997年8月Gentle Voice.

首先我们应找出为何要修习奢摩他的理由,基本上,修止是为了获得某种程度的自我控制力。这表示目前我们毫无自我控制能力。在我们面对的许多难题,我认为我们经历最深层的焦虑和痛苦之一,是内在的基本不安全感。此不安全感正是我们必需摧毁或至少应了解到的。

我们的基本不安是有关于我们本身,更具体地说,此不安乃关于是否有“我”或“自己(the self)”,通常我们不太可能问这个问题,但下意识或半下意识里一直都在质疑。佛教教义上认为内在不安乃当我们不断审视自己的生活,尤其是日常生活时,会发现自我的存在颇为怀疑。

举例来说:自我介绍时,我们会说“我是某某某”;我们可能将自己名字印在名片上,或寻求各种途径以获得进阶或得到某种称谓,更细一层的探究:我们还经历像挚爱与争斗等等的各种极端情绪,这些情绪,实际上还超乎了对别人的爱着与侵犯.它们产生的原因是为了说服我们[自己存在,我确实存在]。

无可避免的,我们还是常感不安,出于这种不安全感,我们制造了许多无谓的希望与期盼,无以设数的期待都落空了。

事实上,我们也常历经那些不期望它发生的、实际中,我们不希望发生的,似乎老是出现,当这种情况反复发生后,人们开始失却对自己的尊敬,也丧失对周遭环境的尊敬,信任就不再有,这就是为何多数的我们,不易对人或事有崇敬的看法(sacred outlook)对自己没有崇敬的理念,就不会有确定性,更不用谈对宗教事务上,如对上帝或圣灵等有崇敬的观点,我们甚至不确定自我是否存在。我们总在怀疑中。即使如此,多数时候我们还是伪装我们存在。

但我们也相当聪明,我们知道我们在伪装,我们想要隐藏,不愿自我承认我们正在伪装。为了遮掩,我们可能做一些与别人有关的极端事情,或对别人吼叫。做完这些事情以后,它给予你一种自我存在的满足感。你也活在这种肤浅的满足感生活中,实际上你的自信还是不坚固。

于是我们逐渐丧失对生活的认知与欣赏...我认为我们应该对自己的生命出某种程度的了解与感恩,当我谈到生活的欣赏与认知,此生活可是包罗万象。举例来说,我吃饼干时,当饼干进入我的喉咙,我应该真实感受到[哇!真不可思议!我能够实实在在吃到饼干,太美妙了]。

你知道吗?也许事情不会是这样。再举例来说,当我在嚼饼干,饼干在我嘴里溶化,可能忽然间屋顶塌下来,可能把我压死了。这片饼干永远也不会进入我的喉咙!所以发展出对生命的认知与欣赏多么地重要,而[止]的禅修即是一把钥匙,一把非常特殊的钥匙,得以进入这种认知与欣赏。

因此我们现在有了二个目标:籍由禅修建立相当的自信,换句话说即消除基本不安,同时学习如何欣赏分分秒秒的生活。然而这不是真正的佛教,而是很人性的作法。你不能称其为一种宗教,事实上,许多奢摩他禅修大师常说修止并非是要达到去除各种烦恼,完全捐弃二元对立现象的开悟境地。其目标,正如我较早所说的是得到自我控制的能力,当能自我控制时,我们可以获得相当程度的信心,认知与欣赏每一分,每一秒的生命。



                                              Our Basic Insecurity

                                                                                                     by Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche

In many countries and on many occasions Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche has taught about shamatha or "calm abiding" meditation as a means to stabilise and focus our minds. Here is an excerpt from the shamatha teaching he gave in Sydney, Australia.  

To begin with we must find the reason why we're doing shamatha meditation. Basically, we're doing it so that we can gain a certain control over ourselves. This means that we have no control over ourselves right now. And out of the many different problems that we face, I think one of the fundamental anxieties or sufferings that we experience is that there's a basic insecurity within us. And that insecurity is what we need to destroy or at least understand.

The basic insecurity that we have is about our identity. And more specifically than that, we have this insecurity about whether there's such a thing as "I" or "the self". Now we may not ask this question normally, but we do pose this question unconsciously or semi-consciously all the time. The Buddhist reason for having such insecurity within us is that if we go on checking our life, especially our day-to-day life, we'll realise that there's doubt about our existence. For instance, we introduce ourselves to someone by saying "I'm so and so". We may print our names on cards or we may try to achieve a certain promotion or a certain title. And more subtly than that we experience all sorts of extreme emotions like passion and aggression. All these are actually more than a person becoming passionate or angry at someone else. The cause of all this aggression and passion is the need to convince ourselves that the self exists, that I do exist.

But still it doesn't help. Still we're constantly insecure. So out of this insecurity we create lots of false hope and expectations. And millions of expectations aren't really fulfilled. Indeed, we often also experience what we don't expect. In fact, what we don't expect seems to happen all the time. And when this keeps on repeating itself, then people begin to lose respect for themselves, begin to lose respect for the environment, and there's no trust. So that's why, for many of us, having a sacred outlook towards someone or something is so difficult to achieve. There's no sacred outlook towards ourselves. There's no certainty. Let's not even talk about a sacred outlook as being something to do with religion, like God or pure soul or anything like that. We're not even sure of our own existence. We're always in doubt. Even though, of course, we do pretend a lot of the time that we exist.

But somehow we're quite intelligent. We know that we're pretending and we want to cover that up. We don't want to admit to ourselves that we're pretending. And to cover it up we do extreme things like maybe have an affair or yell at someone. And when you go through that kind of extreme emotion, it gives you a certain satisfaction that you do exist. And you live your life with this sort of shallow satisfaction all the time. But it doesn't actually give you stable confidence in yourself.

And then we begin to lose our appreciation of life... I think we should develop a certain appreciation of our life. When I talk about appreciation of life, it includes everything. For example, as I eat this biscuit and it goes down my throat, I should actually feel, "Wow! Incredible! It's so good that I can actually eat a little bit of biscuit. That's amazing!" You see, it may never happen. For example, while I'm chewing this biscuit, while it's melting in my mouth, suddenly this roof may collapse and I may die. This biscuit may never go down my throat! It's so important to develop this appreciation of our life. And shamatha meditation is one key, a very special key, to developing this appreciation.

So we have two goals now. Through the meditation we build a certain confidence, in other words, eliminate that basic insecurity that we have, and we learn how to appreciate our moment-by-moment life. This isn't really Buddhism, it's a very human thing to do. You can't say that this is a religion. In fact, many shamatha meditation masters often say that the aim of shamatha meditation isn't necessarily to gain enlightenment in the sense of getting rid of all sorts of emotions and reaching the stage where you completely abandon all sorts of dualistic phenomena. The aim of shamatha meditation has nothing to do with that. The aim of it, as I was saying earlier, is to gain control over ourselves. And by gaining that control, we gain a certain confidence and appreciate our life moment by moment, day by day.


[ 本帖最后由 卓玛的卓玛 于 2007-8-7 11:43 编辑 ]
发表于 2007-8-13 23:43:59 | 显示全部楼层
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